Sunday 3 May

Mozart Concertos

Horn Concerto No 2 in E-flat major
Clarinet Concerto in A major
Oboe Concerto in C major
Sinfonia Concertante in E-flat major *

Jaime Martín  conductor
Olivier Stankiewicz  oboe
Juliana Koch oboe *
Andrew Marriner clarinet
Chris Richards clarinet *
Rachel Gough bassoon *
Timothy Jones horn
LSO Chamber Orchestra

Concert recorded in October 2019

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Horn Concerto No 2 in E-flat major K417

1. Allegro
2. Andante
3. Rondo: Allegro

Timothy Jones horn


Although Mozart was a pianist and violinist, wind instruments often won a special response from him. Whether in solo concertos, in serenades for wind ensemble, or just within the orchestral textures of his symphonies and piano concertos, his natural grace and lyrical warmth repeatedly showed themselves in his writing for the principal wind instruments of the day, namely flute, oboe, clarinet and horn. He seems to have had a liking, too, for the kind of men who played them, forming friendships with several in which professional admiration mixed with earthy good humour.


Mozart’s move from his native Salzburg to Vienna in 1781 brought a period of enormous growth and fulfilment for him, impelled by the city’s highly stimulating musical and intellectual atmosphere. Among his friends there was the horn player Joseph Leutgeb, a virtuoso of the relatively new ‘hand-stopping’ technique that had greatly extended the range of notes available on the 18th-century horn, whose performances drew praise for their ability to ‘sing an adagio as perfectly as the most mellow, interesting and accurate voice’, and who ended up the lucky recipient of no fewer than four beautifully made concertos.

The natural horn used throughout the 18th century consisted of a mouthpiece, a coiled length of tubing and a large flared bell, and was a precursor to the valved horn, which emerged in the 19th century.

In fact Mozart had already known Leutgeb in Salzburg, where both men had been members of the Archbishop’s court orchestra. Leutgeb had left for Vienna in 1777, however, there to combine his musical occupation with the profession of cheese and sausage-monger, and so it must have been with some pleasure (and perhaps amusement) that Mozart was reunited with him there. The fact that the manuscript of the first concerto he wrote for him in 1783 bears an inscription claiming that the composer had ‘taken pity on Leutgeb, ass, ox and fool’, and that the fourth carries even more ribald remarks at the soloist’s expense, suggests that friendship was established on fairly robust lines.


The Horn Concerto known as Mozart’s second was actually his first for the ‘ass, ox and fool’, and was completed on 27 May 1783. Despite the insults, Mozart evidently had faith in Leutgeb’s skills, although comparison with horn parts written for other players suggests that he took trouble to accommodate greater comfort in the higher register. The music’s character, too, is dignified and charming, particularly in the poetic lines of the central slow movement, which exploit Leutgeb’s famous lyrical skills. It is also true, however, of the majestic first movement and the finale, whose cantering rhythms evoke the horn’s customary associations with the posthorn.

Note by Lindsay Kemp

Lindsay Kemp is a senior producer for BBC Radio 3, including programming lunchtime concerts at Wigmore Hall and LSO St Luke’s. He is also Artistic Advisor to York Early Music Festival, Artistic Director of Baroque at the Edge Festival and a regular contributor to Gramophone magazine.

Timothy Jones

Timothy Jones was born in London in 1961 and studied with Ifor Jones and Frank Lloyd. After leaving school at the age of 17, he started his career as a professional musician, playing second horn with the Munich Philharmonic.

In 1984 Timothy joined the London Philharmonic Orchestra, where he stayed until joining the LSO as Principal Horn in 1986. Timothy has also been a member of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra and the Academy of St Martin in the Fields.

During his career, Timothy has performed as a soloist with both the Munich Philharmonic and the Academy of St Martin in the Fields, both in the UK and abroad to great acclaim.

Photo of LSO horn player Timothy Jones

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Clarinet Concerto in A major K622

1. Allegro
2. Adagio
3. Rondo: Allegro

Andrew Marriner clarinet


Mozart’s last great instrumental composition owes its existence to the clarinettist Anton Stadler, for whom it was written in the autumn of 1791. In part, it owes its greatness to him too. Stadler was not only one of the foremost clarinettists of his day, known for the soft, voice-like quality of his playing, he was also another friend of the composer, having already inspired him to create the superb Clarinet Quintet in 1789. Stadler was fond of the woody, mellow sound of the clarinet’s lower register and had developed an instrument which gave extra notes at this bottom end. In the event, this variant – known as the basset clarinet – did not catch on, but it was around long enough for Mozart to compose for it both the Quintet and the Concerto and thereby insure it against total obsolescence. (Tonight’s performance is of the work’s first published version, which adapted it for the narrower compass of the conventional clarinet.)


What really distinguishes this Concerto, however, is that it is a culmination of Mozart’s unsurpassed achievements as a master of the concerto form, an effortless coming-together of the elements – structural coherence, appealing tunefulness, virtuosity and a talent for melodic characterisation carried over from his work in the opera house – with which he had moulded the concerto into a sophisticated mode of expression.

Yet perhaps the most impressive thing about it is its simplicity. Here is a work with no great surprises or alarms, only music of perfectly pleasing melodic charm and structural ‘rightness’. The first movement is unusually expansive, with the same relaxed lyricism that characterises the two piano concertos Mozart had already composed in the same key. The finale is a suave and witty rondo with a memorable recurring theme, but it is the central slow movement that brings some of the loveliest music not only of this concerto but also of Mozart’s entire output. The exquisite melody with which it begins and ends – presented delicately by the soloist at first, then warmly echoed by the orchestra – is essential Mozart, deeply moving yet at the same time noble and restrained.

Note by Lindsay Kemp

Andrew Marriner

Andrew Marriner held the position of Principal Clarinet with the LSO from 1986, when he succeeded the late Jack Brymer, to 2019.

As a soloist Andrew has been a regular performer in London, both at the Barbican and the Royal Festival Hall. As a performer and teacher, his career is worldwide in its reach, taking him regularly from Europe to the Americas, Asia and Australia.

In the chamber repertoire, notable performances include the Mozart and Brahms Clarinet Quintets with the Chilingirian, Quatuor Sine Nomine and The Lindsays, and Schubert’s Der Hirt auf dem Felsen all over the world, memorably with Sylvia McNair and Alfred Brendel at the Royal Festival Hall in 1999, and with Edita Gruberová at Wigmore Hall in 2010.

Andrew has recorded the core solo and chamber clarinet repertoire for various labels, including Philips, EMI, Chandos and Collins Classics. The BBC regularly broadcasts his concerto appearances.


LSO Wind Ensemble perform Mozart's 'Gran Partita'

LSO Wind Ensemble perform Mozart's 'Gran Partita'

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Oboe Concerto in C major K314

1. Allegro aperto
2. Adagio ma non troppo
3. Rondo: Allegretto

Olivier Stankiewicz oboe


Mozart’s one and only Oboe Concerto was composed in the summer of 1777 for the oboist Giuseppe Ferlendis, another member of the orchestra of the Archbishop of Salzburg’s court. By November, however, the composer had begun a five-month stay in Mannheim and was making friends with the players in the famously fine court orchestra there, among them the oboist Friedrich Ramm. ‘I made him a present of my Oboe Concerto’, Mozart wrote back home to his father, ‘and the man is quite beside himself with joy’.

The piece is indeed a fine example of Mozart’s early concerto style: easy, elegant and lyrical, and with soloist and orchestra engaged in modest dialogue rather than the more symphonic discourses of the later piano concertos. Both the first two movements have the flavour of arias, the first amiably assertive (Mozart’s unusual movement heading of ‘aperto’, literally ‘frank’ or ‘open’, is one he was fond of at this time), and the second warm and romantic, with an extra surge of yearning provided by the main melody’s wide upward leap. The finale is a perky and buoyant rondo whose returning theme would later resurface in modified form in the opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail.

Note by Lindsay Kemp

Olivier Stankiewicz

In 2015 Olivier won First Prize at the Young Concert Artists auditions in Leipzig and New York. The same year he was appointed Principal Oboe of the LSO.

Solo highlights have included performances of Berio’s Chemins IV with the Orchestre National du Capitole Toulouse, Bernd Alois Zimmermann’s Concerto with the French National Orchestra, Benjamin Attahir’s Concerto Nur in Suntory Hall with the Tokyo Sinfonietta and Mozart with the LSO.

Born in Nice, Olivier studied at the CNSM in Paris. His awards include First Prize at the 2012 International Oboe Competition in Japan, and in 2013 he was named classical revelation by ADAMI. He was selected by YCAT in 2016.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Sinfonia Concertante in E-flat major K297b

1. Allegro
2. Adagio
3. Andantino con variazioni

Juliana Koch oboe
Chris Richards clarinet
Rachel Gough bassoon
Timothy Jones horn


Today Mozart’s wind-writing continues to keep many a player happy, but even so it is easy to imagine how eyes must have lit up in 1869 when the discovery was announced of a ‘lost’ Sinfonia Concertante for oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon. Mozart was indeed known to have composed a sinfonia concertante (essentially a concerto for more than one soloist) during his six-month stay in Paris in 1778, although that was for flute, oboe, horn and bassoon. It had been intended for three of the players Mozart had met in Mannheim the previous year (flautist Johann Wendling, Friedrich Ramm the oboist, and bassoonist Georg Ritter), plus the horn player Johann Stich (known as Giovanni Punto), all of whom were visiting the French capital on a concert tour. It was never performed, however, and the score was lost. Mozart suspected local intrigue.


Enthusiasm for the theory that the rediscovered Sinfonia Concertante was a version of the lost one has faded over the years. If it is by Mozart it does not always show him at his best, despite some elegant writing for the soloists, but there is still enough of a whiff of the composer about it to suggest the possibility that he had at least some hand in it. One theory holds that the wind parts were adaptations from the originals, while the orchestral accompaniments and interludes were written by someone else. It is difficult, of course, to identify a composer’s style in a genre he attempted only once. The assured constructions he devised for his wonderful solo concertos are not always appropriate for a work with four soloists, where a more relaxed and collaborative approach is required.

If there is a sense of the master’s hand in the neatly disposed solos of K297b, it reaches its height in the rich lyricism of the Adagio, a movement whose glowing warmth surely presents the strongest case for associating Mozart with the work. The finale is a set of variations on a jaunty theme, and while the little refrain which follows each variation is not particularly characteristic, the movement is both entertaining and imaginative.

Note by Lindsay Kemp

Juliana Koch

Juliana Koch is Principal Oboe of the LSO and Professor at the Royal College of Music. She is a laureate of the 2017 ARD International Music Competition in Munich, where she was ranked highest among the prizewinners and also took the Audience Prize and the Osnabrücker Prize.

Juliana is an active chamber musician and has performed at many prestigious festivals around the world, including Musica Viva’s Huntington Estate Music Festival in Australia, Lucerne Festival, Bachfest Leipzig and Paavo Järvi’s Pärnu Music Festival. She has appeared in recital performances at the Bamberg Konzerthalle, NDR Hannover and Deutschlandfunk Köln.

Juliana has studied with François Leleux, Fabian Menzel and Jacques Tys. She has also studied Baroque Oboe with Saskia Fikentscher. Juliana first played as Principal Oboe with the Royal Danish Orchestra and with Filarmonica della Scala in Milan. She plays a Marigaux M2 Oboe.

Chris Richards

Chris Richards studied at the Guildhall School of Music & Drama, where he reached the finals of the 2001 Shell/LSO Competition, performing as a soloist with the London Symphony Orchestra. After his studies he was appointed Principal Clarinet with the Northern Sinfonia at the Sage Gateshead and in 2010 became Principal Clarinet with the LSO. He has also performed as a guest Principal with most of the UK’s leading orchestras.

A regular performer of chamber music, Chris has played at Carnegie Hall, Wigmore Hall, LSO St Luke’s, The Sage Gateshead and Aldeburgh Festival with artists such as the Elias Quartet, Navarra Quartet, Aronowitz Ensemble, LSO Chamber Ensemble, Ensemble 360, Thomas Adès, Pascal Rogé and Howard Shelley and in 2008 he gave the premiere of Richard Rodney Bennett’s Troubadour Music for clarinet and piano at Wigmore Hall. He is also a regular member of the John Wilson Orchestra and a Professor at the Royal Academy of Music.

Rachel Gough

Rachel Gough has been Principal Bassoon of the LSO since 1999. For eight years prior to joining the LSO she was Co-Principal with the BBC Symphony Orchestra and a Professor at the Royal Academy of Music.

Rachel has appeared as a soloist with Sir Colin Davis, Valery Gergiev, Bernard Haitink, Sir Neville Marriner, Gianandrea Noseda and Gennady Rozhdestvensky. Several solo works have been written for her, including the London Concerto by Huw Watkins, commissioned as part of the LSO's centenary celebrations. She has been a jury member on the Donatella Flick Conducting Competition and the ARD International Music Competition in Munich. She is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Music.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Born in Salzburg on 27 January 1756, Mozart began to pick out tunes on his father’s keyboard before his fourth birthday. His first compositions were written down in the early months of 1761; later that year, the boy performed in public for the first time at the University of Salzburg. Mozart’s ambitious father, Leopold, court composer and Vice-Kapellmeister to the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, recognised the money-making potential of his precocious son and pupil, embarking on a series of tours to the major courts and capital cities of Europe.

Portait of composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

In 1777 Wolfgang, now 21 and frustrated with life as a musician-in-service at Salzburg, left home, visiting the court at Mannheim on the way to Paris. The Parisian public gave the former child prodigy a lukewarm reception, and he struggled to make money by teaching and composing new pieces for wealthy patrons. A failed love affair and the death of his mother prompted Mozart to return to Salzburg, where he accepted the post of Court and Cathedral Organist.

In 1780 he was commissioned to write an opera, Idomeneo, for the Bavarian court in Munich, where he was treated with great respect. However, the servility demanded by his Salzburg employer finally provoked Mozart to resign in 1781 and move to Vienna in search of a more suitable position, fame and fortune. In the last decade of his life, he produced a series of masterpieces in all the principal genres of music, including the operas The Marriage of Figaro (1785), Don Giovanni (1787), Così fan tutte and The Magic Flute, the Symphonies Nos 40 and 41 (‘Jupiter’), a series of sublime piano concertos, a clarinet quintet and the Requiem, left incomplete at his death on 5 December 1791.

Profile by Andrew Stewart

Andrew Stewart is a freelance music writer and journalist. He is the author of The LSO at 90 and contributes to a wide variety of specialist classical music publications.

On Mozart
with Juliana Koch

What do you think makes Mozart’s music so popular, even now?

'What makes Mozart’s music so genuine and timeless is probably one of the big mysteries of humankind. How can one person produce music that touches so many people, even centuries after his death?

Interestingly enough, many musicians would say his music is amongst the most difficult to interpret – because of its simplicity one can hear absolutely everything and all the phrases request a perfectly organic shape to let the inherent beauty come through.'

What can you tell us about Mozart’s Sinfonia Concertante?

'Mozart’s Sinfonia Concertante has quite a mysterious past, as we are not really sure if he wrote all of it himself. He seems to have originally written for a different group of soloists (flute, oboe, horn, bassoon) instead of the one used nowadays (oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon), but the original manuscript is lost. There is a lot of debate going on; how much exactly of the Concertante played today is actually written by Mozart?

The second movement especially is absolutely stunning and of the highest quality. Mozart wrote so much fantastic music for woodwinds and these four solo parts seem to be of the same level. To me at least, it feels as if we get a glimpse of Mozart’s ideas.'

Jaime Martín

In September 2019 Jaime Martín became Chief Conductor of the RTE National Symphony Orchestra and Music Director of the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra.  He has been Artistic Director and Principal Conductor of Gävle Symphony Orchestra since 2013, and his time there has brought the orchestra a new level of international recognition through highly acclaimed recordings and touring performances.

Jaime has worked with an impressive list of orchestras that includes the Frankfurt Radio Symphony, Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, Royal Scottish National, Swedish Radio Symphony, Barcelona Symphony, New Zealand Symphony, Queensland Symphony, Deutsche Radio Philharmonie Saabruecken, Essen Philharmonic and Philharmonia Orchestras, the Academy of St Martin in the Fields, Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra and the Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France.

Jaime is the Artistic Advisor of the Santander Festival. Over the last five years he has brought financial stability and created a platform for some of the most exciting artists in their fields. He was also a founding member of the Orquestra de Cadaqués, with whom he has been associated for 30 years, and where he has held the title of Chief Conductor since 2012.

Image: Chris Dunlop

Photo of conductor Jaime Martín

The LSO was established in 1904 and has a unique ethos. As a musical collective, it is built on artistic ownership and partnership. With an inimitable signature sound, the LSO’s mission is to bring the greatest music to the greatest number of people.

The LSO has been the only Resident Orchestra at the Barbican Centre in the City of London since it opened in 1982, giving 70 symphonic concerts there every year. The Orchestra works with a family of artists that includes some of the world’s greatest conductors – Sir Simon Rattle as Music Director, Principal Guest Conductors Gianandrea Noseda and François-Xavier Roth, and Michael Tilson Thomas as Conductor Laureate.

Through LSO Discovery, it is a pioneer of music education, offering musical experiences to 60,000 people every year at its music education centre LSO St Luke’s on Old Street, across East London and further afield.

The LSO strives to embrace new digital technologies in order to broaden its reach, and with the formation of its own record label LSO Live in 1999 it pioneered a revolution in recording live orchestral music. With a discography spanning many genres and including some of the most iconic recordings ever made the LSO is now the most recorded and listened to orchestra in the world, regularly reaching over 3,500,000 people worldwide each month on Spotify and beyond. The Orchestra continues to innovate through partnerships with market-leading tech companies, as well as initiatives such as LSO Play. The LSO is a highly successful creative enterprise, with 80% of all funding self-generated.

Image: Ranald Mackechnie

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Thursday 7 May 2020 7.30pm BST
Shostakovich & Gershwin

Colin Matthews Hidden Variables
Gershwin Concerto in F
Shostakovich Symphony No 5

Michael Tilson Thomas  conductor
Yuja Wang  piano